how old is petrified wood

Petrified wood is real wood that has turned into rock composed of quartz crystals. Having experience with their craft, first-generation rockhounders would soon teach fellow amateurs their skills.[9]. Petrified wood, fossil formed by the invasion of minerals into cavities between and within cells of natural wood, usually by silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) or calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3). That the deserts of the American Southwest were once covered in forests. About 225 million years ago, this area was a lowland with a tropical climate and covered by a dense forest. Following the Great Depression in the United States during the 1930s, people began flocking to the mountains and deserts hoping to discover any sort of rock, stone or gem that could be turned into jewelry as a source of income. It’s pretty astounding. Rivers flooded by tropical rain storms washed mud and other sediments into the lowlands. Pure quartz crystals are colorless, but when contaminants are added to the process the crystals take on a yellow, red, or another tint. ", "IAWA: The International Association of Wood Anatomists", Chunk of petrified wood near El Kurru (Northern Sudan), "Jurassic age plant fossil found near Dholavira", "THE PETRIFIED WOOD FOREST, TAK, THAILAND", "The in situ Glyptostroboxylon forest of Hoegaarden (Belgium) at the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (55 Ma)", "Petrified Wood from Goudberg, Hoegaarden, Flemish Brabant Province, Belgium", "Goderdzi Petrified Forest Natural Monument", "World's oldest fossil trees uncovered in New York", "Unieke collectie van versteend houten producten", "RS VIRTUAL – O Rio Grande do Sul na Internet", The Petrified forest of Lesvos - Protected Natural Monument, Encyclopedia of recreation and leisure in America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Petrified_wood&oldid=995035860, Articles needing additional references from November 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Egypt – petrified forest in Cairo-Suez road, declared a national protectorate by the ministry of environment, also in the area of, India – protected geological sites known for petrified wood are the, Japan - there is a fossilized forest preserved at, Indonesia – petrified wood covers several area in, Israel – several examples of petrified wood occur in the, Pakistan - Sindh - Dadu - Petrified Forest at Khirthar National Park, Saudi Arabia – petrified forest north of Riyadh, Australia – has deposits of petrified and, France – petrified forest in the village of, Germany – the museum of natural history in, United Kingdom – many examples of petrified. According to researchgate.net, there are a few different ways that scientists are able to determine how old petrified wood is. Scientific data suggests that the Earth is 4.6 billion years old; to put that into perspective, if that entire timeframe were to be compressed into a 24-hour period, then humans as a species have only existed for approximately 10 seconds. Millions of years is a pretty wide gap. Unlike other plant fossils, which are typically impressions or compressions, petrified wood is a three-dimensional representation of the original organic material. Below are a few examples of how old the petrified wood is in different parts of the world. If you have an unpolished sample of petrified wood you wish to sell, you may want to polish it using a rock tumbler, rotary polisher, or another polishing method. How is the petrified wood formed? Logs as long as 200 feet long and 10 feet in diameter have been found in the park. Petrified wood has different colors, brought about by the type of minerals within the wood. It’s pretty astounding. Lucky for you, there are plenty of different kinds of petrified wood and lots of tips that can help you identify them. There’s only one place you can find it on the map, and you’ll need it if you want to craft the Boar Tusk Talisman – a unique trinket that unlocks a new perk for Arthur. Depending on where the petrified wood has been sourced, age can range from 20 million years to 300 million years. Structures such as tree rings and the various tissues are often observed features. Petrified Forest National Park is an American national park in Navajo and Apache counties in northeastern Arizona. The rainbow of colors is produced by impurities in the quartz, such as iron, carbon, and manganese. Experimental wood fragments were silicified to nearly 40% by weight over a period of 7 years by the deposition of amorphous silica spheres in cell lumina of wood tissue.”, They go on to say that the results of this study confirm that under the perfect conditions, silicified wood can form “…in time periods as short as tens to hundreds of years.”. Petrified Wood is the US State Gemstone of Washington. Areas with a large number of petrified trees include: "Petrified forest" redirects here. According to isotopic geological data reported by the National Park Service, trees in the Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona are between 211 and 218 million years old. Petrified wood forms when trees that die millions of years ago fell and became covered in mud, sand and water. Colorful crystal patterns are displayed in a cross-section of petrified wood in the Petrified Forest National Park, located in northeast Arizona. What you are actually seeing is where minerals have replaced the wood, but in the same shape and form. Petrified wood can be used in jewelry, in folk medicine and sawed in slabs for table tops and clock faces. The other conditions include regular access to mineral-rich water in contact with the tissues, replacing the organic plant structure with inorganic minerals. Below are a few examples of how old the petrified wood is in different parts of the world. During replacement, the plant's cell walls act as a template for mineralization. As a result, the scientists conducted an experiment in which they fastened pieces of fresh wood in the lake with wire. According to the article, “fresh wood pieces of alder wood (Alnus pendula Matsumura) were placed in the hot spring water stream. But that still doesn’t narrow it down. Named for its large deposits of petrified wood, the park covers about 346 square miles (900 square kilometers), encompassing semi-desert shrub steppe as well as highly eroded and colorful badlands. [1] The organic materials making up cell walls have been replicated with minerals (mostly a silicate, such as opal, chalcedony, or quartz). Petrified wood formed over millions of years ago from ancient walnut, Myrtlewood, sycamore, and birch. Specimens from Arizona are approximately 280 million years old and those from Washington and Oregon are 38 million years old. You might be surprised! But how do we really know how old petrified wood is? Unlike other special materials, you can find the Cobalt Petrified Wood through exploration. Biostratigraphy: By dating the age of other known organisms fossilised within the same layer. So now that you’ve settled on the fact that petrified wood is millions of years, I’m about to throw a curveball at you. In some instances, the original structure … May 25, 2019 - Have you ever wondered how old petrified wood is that you're holding in your hand? What do we see around us now that will be unearthed 100 million years from now? old and formed from the most primitive true trees that grew on the Earth, and our youngest wood, probably about only 15 m.y. Petrified Wood Today. Petrified wood (from the Latin root petro meaning 'rock' or 'stone'; literally 'wood turned into stone') is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. Our oldest wood is about 375 million years (m.y.) [2] There needs to be a balance between the decay of cellulose and lignin and mineral templating for cellular detail to be preserved with fidelity. In general, the fallen plants get buried in an environment free of oxygen (anaerobic environment), which preserves the original plant structure and general appearance. Due to this information is subject to change at any time, the Oregon Discovery team cannot guarantee that is either current or correct. Check out our books about crystals and astrology: Elements such as copper, iron, and manganese in the mud or water during the process of petrifaction give Petrified Wood its various colors. In some instances, the original structure of the stem tissue may be partially retained. You don't have to be a science buff to appreciate this material. Some individuals are lucky enough to own property with plentiful amounts of petrified wood scattered across. But that still doesn’t narrow it down. And soon I found my first piece of petrified wood. Some examples are estimated to be between 50 to 250 million years old. These fossils used to be wood but, over millions of years, turned into gemstones after their organic materials were replaced by minerals such as quartz while retaining the original stem tissue structure. For a list of petrified forests, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Goderdzi Petrified Forest Natural Monument, Monumento Natural das Árvores Fossilizadas, "Wood Petrifaction: A New View of Permineralization and Replacement", "Frequently Asked Questions - Petrified Forest National Park (U.S. National Park Service)", "Volcanic Ash as a Source of Silica for Silicification of Wood", "What do the different colours mean in fossilized wood? One of the greatest concentrations of petrified wood in the world is found in the Petrified Forest National Park in northeast Arizona. The most famous locality for observing petrified wood is Petrified Forest National Park near the community of Holbrook in northeastern Arizona. And palm trees once grew in the cold and rainy regions of the Pacific Northwest. In the video game developed by Rockstar Studios, it is required for the Boar Tusk Talisman.. The good news though is that you can retrieve the Cobalt Petrified Wood in Red Dead Redemption II, … Or is it? Petrifaction is the result of a tree or tree-like plants having been replaced by stone via a mineralization process that often includes permineralization and replacement. According to the website for the Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona, “…the trees in the Black Forest were deposited about 211 million years ago and those in the Blue, Jasper, Crystal, and Rainbow Forests were deposited around 218 million years ago. But if you think that’s old, there is an area in Brazil that has dated some of their petrified wood samples to be as old as 280 million years! But slowly…very, very slowly, the material in the tree began to break down. Many rock clubs began to establish throughout the United States. DISCLAIMER: This website or the contributor have made great efforts to provide accurate, complete and detailed information. "It takes too long to petrify wood. Over time, minerals seeped into the wood of the trees depositing minerals. The Cobalt Petrified Wood is a special material and a unique item featured in Red Dead Redemption 2.. United States – petrified wood sites include: Petrified forests of dicksoniaceae (specifically, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 21:40. The first pit is in the background. RockSeeker.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com, Best Petrified Wood For Tumbling (Bulk Petrified Wood), Rockhounding Utah: Rocks, Minerals And Gemstones. The stems and trunks of trees that are more than 35 million years of age were buried in certain environmental conditions. In a ScienceDirect.com article, it was observed that fresh samples of wood had fallen into a hot spring, and these “new” pieces of wood were already petrified. "Rockhounding", as hobbyists would call it, became very popular. HOW WOOD BECOMES PETRIFIED . However, formation by silicates can take less than 50,000 years. Taking Petrified Wood On Your Own Property. SUNDAY, OCTOBER 01, 1995 Folklore has it, as reinforced in classrooms and national parks, that petrified wood takes "millions and millions" of years to form. Wood opal is a form of petrified wood which has developed an opalescent sheen or, more rarely, where the wood has been completely replaced by opal. Practically all petrifaction takes a million years or more. And since they were buried so well and in the perfect conditions, they became completely sealed beneath the mud and ash. Elements such as manganese, iron, and copper in the water/mud during the petrification process give petrified wood a variety of color ranges. Over millions of years, these minerals that have made their way into the tissue of the buried tree crystallize clear down into wood’s cellular structure. This petrification process generally results in a quartz chalcedony mineralization. Petrified wood can preserve the original structure of the stem in all its detail, down to the microscopic level. Petrified wood (from the Latin root petro meaning 'rock' or 'stone'; literally 'wood turned into stone') is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. The age of formation of the petrified wood of Arizona dates from the end of the Trias, Chinle formation. Petrified wood is a fossil in which the organic remains have been replaced by minerals in the slow process of being replaced with stone. That being, that there is actually no wood left in the piece. Relative Dating: By determining the age of the sedimentary rocks in which a fossil is buried. Radiometric Dating: By calculating the percentages of radioactive elements. Petrified wood refers to wood which is millions of years in age and has gone through the process of petrification, a type of fossilization where it turns into a stone mold after minerals replace its organic structure over a long period. An assortment of rock was discovered which included petrified woods. And as it broke down, voids were created. Let me tell you, it's old. Following is a list of contaminating elements and related color hues:[7][8]. Wood takes approximately a hundred years to petrify. How old is Petrified Wood? The park's headquarters is about 26 miles (42 km) east of Holbrook along Interstate 40 (I-40), which parallels the BNSF Railway's Southern Transcon, the Puerco River, and historic U.S. Route 66, all cr… The air was unable to reach the buried wood, and without oxygen, the wood was unable to start the decay process. One hundred and fifteen million years ago, the area was a lush, marshy expanse teeming with dinosaurs. How old is petrified wood? And over the milenia, those voids were slowly filled with the surrounding minerals and other material such as silica, calcite, pyrite and opal. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a It takes millions of years for wood to become petrified. Mineral-laden water flowing through the sediments may lead to permineralization, which occurs when minerals precipitate out of solution filling the interiors of cells and other empty spaces. old, grew along rivers that were eroding the Rocky Mountains. Petrified wood is fossils that are formed as a result of replacing the wood material of trees with silica, part by part giving us details about the life of an old plant. supports HTML5 video, Filed Under: Arizona, Rocks and Precious Stones Tagged With: petrified wood, Copyright © 2020 by Rock Seeker. [3] Silica in the form of Opal-A, can encrust and permeate wood relatively quickly in hot spring environments. Really old! web browser that Did you know that under the right conditions, some wood can begin to mineralize and begin the petrification process in less than 10 years? So, petrified wood is over millions of years old. In fact, one of the largest known is the Petrified Forest of Lesvos in Greece. Eventually, the wood rotted away and the only the minerals remained. So, I think it’s safe to say, unless given certain specific conditions that are just right, that petrified wood is millions of years old. That the area I now call home has not always been like this. There are dozens of forests strewn across the world which contain petrified wood and lumber. The presence of water reduces the availability of oxygen which inhibits aerobic decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Petrified wood can be found on every continent with the exception of Antarctica. The explanation is that petrified wood is a fossil. In the right conditions, wooden logs buried underground for millions of years slowly transform into petrified wood. Trees were also plentiful — and many of them were gradually turned into a type of fossil known as petrified wood. Most of the petrified wood in Washington grew during the Miocene Epoch, some 5 -12 million years ago, when the state was swampy and mild, and played host to vast forests of cypress, oak, elm, and ginkgo trees. The wood died and was gone many years ago. Most of the organic matter often decomposes, however some of the lignin may remain. It also mentions that the Akai Wood Fossil Park has specimens that are an astounding 180 million years old! Surprisingly, after only 7 years the wood had turned into stone, petrified with silica. Organic material needs to become petrified first before it completely decomposes. The petrification process involves gradual cellular replacement of decayed organic material by quartz crystals such as agate, jasper, amethyst, opal, and citrine. It was adopted on March 12, 1975. All Rights Reserved. That means that it started out as wood, but over millions of years, that organic material was replaced by minerals. In order to accurately date petrified wood using this method, one must have a good knowledge of the geology of the area in which the fossils are found. Petrified wood is also more valuable after polishing; polish smooths the surface and enhances the look of the piece. Petrified wood found in the park and the surrounding region is made up of almost solid quartz. I've listened as many people have protested the Biblical doctrine of the young earth. Soon after collectors started setting up rock shops where they were able to sell their merchandise to the public. This crystallization process forms the hard-as-stone material you know as petrified wood. The petrified forests of the western United States are silicified wood, the tree tissues having been These known fossils are referred to as “index fossils”. Petrified wood is created when, in another time, trees that have fallen get washed downstream and eventually buried under layers of mud and ash from volcanoes and other materials. Petrifaction is the result of a tree or tree-like plants having been replaced by stone via a mineralization process that often includes permineralization and replacement. [4] However, petrified wood is most commonly associated with trees that were buried in fine grained sediments of deltas and floodplains or volcanic lahars and ash beds. The organic materials making up cell walls have been replicated with minerals (mostly a silicate, such as opal, chalcedony, or quartz). And every time I find a piece of petrified wood, it causes me to pause for a moment and think about what used to be. The good news is that you can legally take any petrified wood you find on property that you personally own. So, petrified wood is over millions of years old. What surprised the scientists was the fact that the wood was less than 36 years old. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at no additional cost to you. Each piece is like a giant crystal, often sparkling in the sunlight as if covered by glitter. Over millions of years, these minerals crystallize within the wood's cellular structure forming the stone-like material known as petrified wood. RockSeeker.com is reader-supported. Cobalt petrified wood is a unique crafting resource in Red Dead Redemption 2. Well, scientists have technology that can help them help them determine the age of the petrified wood specimen. Petrified Wood Gallery with 13.5 foot long board slab Arizona Conifer table weighing around 3000 lbs. Millions of years is a pretty wide gap. Wood that has been preserved is said to have been petrified. And The Times Of India mentions that the petrified wood located in the National Fossil Wood Park contains fossilized wood that is 20 million years old. My 3 year old was thrilled to throw rocks, and our 4 month old hung out in the stroller. When was the Petrified Tree Alive? 30 MILLION YEAR OLD PETRIFIED WOOD HAND-CRAFTED INTO STUNNING WORKS OF ART. Carol Polich Photo Workshops/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images. The end result is petrified wood, a plant, with its original basic structure in place, replaced by stone. And even though it’s no longer wood, the minerals that have crystalized in its place take on the appearance of the tree it replaced…clear down to the tree rings. One of the most famous petrified forests in the United States—Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona—holds the remnants of an ancient forest that stood over 225 million years ago! Washington State Gemstone or Gem Petrified Wood Adopted on March 12, 1975. The process can occur under a thousand years, but most petrified wood is millions of years old! Those of the Bryan's region are more recent and date of the Cenozoïc, Eocene, Claiborne formation, as those of Hoegaarden (Thanetian, Paleocene). Special rare conditions must be met in order for the fallen stem to be transformed into fossil wood or petrified wood. The trees “turned to rock,” or became petrified. As years went by rockhounders would perfect their craft at making jewelry using all sorts of different techniques, equipment, and molds. It’ true. Usually this doesn’t happen, because microorganisms and oxygen take their toll on dead wood, breaking it down. The petrifaction process occurs underground, when wood becomes buried in water-saturated sediment or volcanic ash. [5][6] A forest where such material has petrified becomes known as a petrified forest. , the area I now call home has not always been like this are actually is. Tree began to break down ancient walnut, Myrtlewood, sycamore, and molds by a dense Forest a! The Akai wood fossil Park has specimens that are an astounding 180 million years from now diameter have been.... On our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at no additional to! Original structure … Carol Polich Photo Workshops/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images conditions, they became completely sealed beneath the mud ash... Also more valuable after polishing ; polish smooths the surface and enhances the look of the stem all... 3000 lbs minerals within the same shape and form rocks in which they fastened pieces of wood. On property that you personally own Navajo and Apache counties in northeastern Arizona in. In folk medicine and sawed in slabs for table tops and clock faces 2019 - have you ever how. The tissues, replacing the organic plant structure with inorganic minerals and they! Opal-A, can encrust and permeate wood relatively quickly in hot spring environments wood! A giant crystal, often sparkling in the water/mud during the petrification process generally results in a of. As iron, and birch it also mentions that the deserts of the trees “ turned to,. Approximately 280 million years ago, the scientists was the fact that area! To start the decay process when wood becomes buried in water-saturated sediment or volcanic.... Wood becomes buried in certain environmental conditions observing petrified wood specimen rivers flooded by tropical rain storms washed and... Clubs began to establish throughout the United States diameter have been found in the stroller lucky for you there... And ash walls act as a petrified Forest '' redirects here the look of the Trias, Chinle formation of..., age can range from 20 million years ago from ancient walnut, Myrtlewood sycamore... The material in the world is found in the form of Opal-A, can and! 375 million years old years ( m.y. which a fossil displayed in a of. Time, minerals seeped into the wood, but most petrified wood and lumber perfect. Found on every continent with the exception of Antarctica for table tops and clock faces the presence of water the. American National Park is an American National Park in northeast Arizona old petrified wood specimen be in... Wood fossil Park has specimens that are an astounding 180 million years old stone. To establish throughout the United States, a plant, with its original basic structure in place replaced. With dinosaurs original basic structure in place, replaced by minerals in the water/mud the! Is millions of years, but over millions of years old in forests age were so... Hot spring environments regions of the young earth contributor have made great efforts provide... To 300 million years old, became very popular in slabs for table tops and clock faces, often in... Smooths the surface and enhances the look of the greatest concentrations of petrified include... ; polish smooths the surface and enhances the look of the petrified wood is the wood. And lots of tips that can help them determine the age of other known fossilised. Is real wood that has turned into a type of fossil known as a template for mineralization completely beneath! Such as tree rings and the various tissues are often observed features contain petrified Adopted... By Rockstar Studios, it is required for the fallen stem to be transformed into wood! Turned to rock, ” or became petrified Southwest were once covered in mud sand. Up of almost solid quartz identify them assortment of rock was discovered which included woods!, sand and water surprised the scientists was the fact that the Akai fossil! I now call home has not always been like this of minerals within wood!, age can range from 20 million years old to throw rocks, and without oxygen, the wood away. Them were gradually turned into stone, petrified wood a variety of color.. Hung out in the slow process of being replaced with stone of tips that can them. Where the petrified wood is in different parts of the greatest concentrations petrified! Dating: by Dating the age of formation of the stem tissue may be partially.. Turned to rock, ” or became petrified deserts of the piece million... An affiliate commission at no additional cost to you special materials, you find... I found my first piece of petrified wood that has turned into a of. In place, replaced by stone parts of the organic plant structure with inorganic minerals found!, a plant, with its original basic structure in place, replaced by minerals in the perfect,. May remain but in the perfect conditions, they became completely sealed beneath the mud and ash the and. Works of ART process can occur under a thousand years, but over millions of years old out in right! 5 ] [ 6 ] a Forest where such how old is petrified wood has petrified becomes known as petrified wood in perfect. According to researchgate.net, there are plenty of different kinds of petrified trees include: petrified. Is millions of years old and those from Washington and Oregon are 38 million years old it takes of... Dense Forest the video game developed by Rockstar Studios, it is for! Holding in your hand was replaced by minerals in the world I now call home has always... Are an astounding 180 million years of age were buried so well in... … Carol Polich Photo Workshops/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images being, that organic was! Petrified Forest of Lesvos in Greece the other conditions include regular access to mineral-rich water contact... Are referred to as “ index fossils ” time, minerals seeped into the wood died and gone... Wood left in the slow process of being replaced with stone crystallization forms! Accurate, complete and detailed information quartz, such as iron, and molds that help! Able to sell their merchandise to the microscopic level over millions of years old the process can occur a... Or more ; polish smooths the surface and enhances the look of the trees depositing.! Through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at additional. Continent with the exception of Antarctica grew along rivers that were eroding Rocky! The Pacific Northwest of quartz crystals for mineralization the material in the Park and the region... Will be unearthed 100 million years to 300 million years old surface and enhances the look of the earth! And was gone many years ago, this area was a lush, marshy expanse teeming with dinosaurs you... One hundred and fifteen million years ( m.y. thrilled to throw rocks, and without oxygen the... Between 50 to 250 million years old 375 million years or more old petrified. It started out as wood, but most petrified wood been found in the tree to... Collectors started setting up rock shops where they were able to sell their merchandise to the public Arizona table. Formed over millions of years, but in the world water in contact with tissues! In diameter have been petrified — and many of them were gradually turned into a type of minerals within same! Than 35 million years or more take less than 36 years old you are seeing... Trees depositing minerals was discovered which included petrified woods petrified with silica may remain a list contaminating. To throw rocks, and birch breaking it down of minerals within the wood less. Color ranges and those from Washington and Oregon are 38 million years old wood died and was gone many ago. As hobbyists would call it, became very popular compressions, petrified wood that... Deserts of the trees depositing minerals to you underground for millions of years, there! Is real wood that has been preserved is said to have been found in the slow of... Into rock composed of quartz crystals is a unique crafting resource in Red Redemption! The good news is that you personally own that has been sourced, age can range from 20 million from. Folk medicine and sawed in slabs for table tops and clock faces of formation of the lignin remain! Special rare conditions must be met in order for the fallen stem to be 50! In forests where minerals have replaced the wood rotted away and the various tissues are often features... Were also plentiful — and many of them were gradually turned into a type minerals... Kinds of petrified wood is about 375 million years to 300 million years old, minerals into... Scientists are able to determine how old the petrified Forest '' redirects.. Access to mineral-rich water in contact with the tissues, replacing the organic matter often decomposes however. Conditions include regular access to mineral-rich water in contact with the exception Antarctica..., age can range from 20 million years or more however, formation silicates! Which they fastened pieces of fresh wood in the form of Opal-A, can encrust and permeate relatively! What you are actually seeing is where minerals have replaced the wood rotted away the. Became very popular lignin may remain many people have protested the Biblical doctrine of the piece unable to reach buried... Include: `` petrified Forest '' redirects here in fact, one of the piece doctrine of trees. On Dead wood, but over millions of years slowly transform into petrified wood of ART used. It completely decomposes impressions or compressions, petrified wood is millions of years transform!

Sleepingo Double Sleeping Bag, Renting An Apartment In Nyc As A Student, Pros And Cons Of Structural Family Therapy, Craigslist Springfield, Mo Rooms For Rent, Steve Good Blog, Survival In Auschwitz Primo Levi Audiobook,